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Citizen science - any environmental and/or biological data collection and analysis, including data quality control, undertaken by members of the general public, as individuals or as organized groups of citizens, with the guidance and/or assistance of scientists toward solving environmental and/or community questions.



Non-native species - species that occurs outside its native range where it evolved. Distribution by natural processes or by human action.



Non-indigenous or alien species - synonymous with non-native species.

Exotic species - species that establishes itself in a new place, causing no negative effects on native species.



Invasive species - species that establishes itself and causes negative effects on native species. Possible environmental and economic impacts in the receiving area.


Neonative species - a species that extends its area of distribution in relation to its historic native area, and this expansion was facilitated by human-induced environmental changes, such as increaseing ocean temperature. However, this expansion cannot be due to direct human action, such as the direct introduction of individuals.


Tropicalization - process of appearance of species from warmer waters due to the increase in sea temperature. The species with mobility follow the water bodies with temperatures that are favorable to them, towards the poles.

Ballast water - water used to stabilize and balance ships according to the amount of cargo on board. Generally, when they have cargo on board, the amount of ballast water will be minimal; when the ship is unloaded and sails without cargo, the holds are filled with water to compensate for the weight of the cargo removed. The problem with this system is that, when filling and later unloading elsewhere, this water also transports living organisms that, when discharged in a place with favorable conditions, can lead to the introduction and dispersion of invasive species.

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